بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Our Teacher began with praising Allaah Ta’Aalaa and sending salaat and salaam and blessings on the Messenger of Allaah, Muhammad (sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam) and on his house of kin and companions and all those who follow them exactly until the Day of Judgement, what follows:
Review and an Exhortation >>>
The author said: Those five rulings vary very much according to its state levels and outcomes. Whatever had an advantage which was pure or stronger, the Legislator ordered it in an obliging manner or a recommended manner. And whatever had a disadvantage which was pure or stronger, the Legislator forbade it in an obliging manner or a recommended manner. And an example of an advantage or disadvantage being stronger is in Quran 2/290 …
So when we look to what is an advantage and what is a disadvatage, we go by what the Legislator says- and accept what He chooses for us because Allaah knows what is best for us and He knows us better than we know our ownselves. So this is all in the consideration of the Legislator Himself. And that is why the Rasool sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam said what means: I have not left anything which gets you closer to Paradise except I have ordered you to do neither have I left anything that gets you further away from the hellfire except that I have forbid you to do. So part of a Muslims belief is that he believes Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta’Aalaa will never command him to do something that is bad for him, because this is of thinking bad about Allaah. When Allaah orders you to do something, you should always believe and never doubt- as a Muslim, that Allaah presecribed this upon you because it is what is BEST for you, Even if you didn’t understand it. Some things you might not understand at first, especially if you don’t want to believe in it – but this is very dangerous not to believe that whatever Allaah ordained for us is best for us. Not even for a second. This belief might be a reason for your heart to be sealed forever until you meet Allaah with the torment. Allaah said in the Quraan which means: And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away (from guidance), as they refused to believe therein for the first time, and We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly. (6/110) So even refusing it on the first time could be a reason for your heart being sealed from the guidance of Allaah forever.
So when you hear a command from Allaah or His Messenger, never doubt that it is what is best for you even if you dont understand the hikmah out of it – but that is not a condition for you to obey it – you should start following it right away. Allaah did not imply upon you that you know the wisdom of something before following … this is not a choice as Allaah said which means: It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allâh and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allâh and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed in a plain error. (33/36)
And more blessed verses: (24:47-52) which mean: They (hypocrites) say: “We have believed in Allâh and in the Messenger (Muhammad), and we obey,” then a party of them turn away thereafter, such are not believers. (47) Allah tells us this not to follow the ways of the disbelievers. (as was taught in Kitaab at Tawheed classes).
And when they are called to Allâh (i.e. His Words, the Qur’ân) and His Messenger, to judge between them, lo! a party of them refuse (to come) and turn away. (48) But if the truth is on their sides, they come to him willingly with submission. (49) This is not being submissive to Allaah, this is being submissive to your whims and desires.
Is there a disease in their hearts? Or do they doubt or fear lest Allâh and His Messenger should wrong them in judgement. Nay, it is they themselves who are the Zâlimûn (polytheists, hypocrites and wrong-doers). (50)
Then Allaah Ta’Aalaa said what every believer should say and do:
The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allâh (His Words, the Qur’ân) and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say: “We hear and we obey.” And such are the successful (who will live forever in Paradise). (51) He didnt say: “We hear we think about and then we obey” or “we hear and if it is convincing to us then we obey.”, no it is simply: “we hear and we obey,” If we believe in Allaah then we believe He has to be obeyed and if we believe in the Prophet Sallallaahu`alayhi wassallam, we believe he has to be obeyed because obeying him is obeying Allaah. And whosoever obeys Allâh and His Messenger, fears Allâh, and keeps his duty (to Him), such are the successful ones. (52)
There are many principles regarding the last two sentences that we read (“so whatever advantage was pure/plain (khaalisah) or stronger (raajihah), the Legislator ordered it either in an obliging manner (waajib) or in a recommended manner (mustahaab)” and “And whichever had a pure disadvantage or a stronger one, the Legislator forbade it either in an obliging manner (haraam) or a recommended manner (Makruuh).”) They are so concise but each sentence contains within it many other principles that are not going to be detailed here. There are many conditions to those principles and Inshaa’Allaah in the future we will get into understanding them.
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The Translation >>>
Fahaadhal-Aslu yuheetu bijamee`il-ma’muuraati wal-munhiyyaati. means: “This principle (which those two points contained) encompasses all the commandments and the prohibitions.
- Yuheetu means “encompasses”
- Jamee` means ” kull” or “all”
The author is about to talk about a second type of mubaah- The 2st type is the one which we have defines. al-mubaah is the permissible and as the author said: mustawit-tarafayn. It doesn’t concern any praising or dispraising. Here is the second type of Mubaah: the mubaah which lead to something else. It became one of the leading means to something else which has another ruling
14- Wa ammaa “al-mubaahaatu”: Fainnash-Shaari`a abaahahaa wa adhina feehaa: wa qad yatawassalu bihaa ilal-khayri, fatulhaqu bil-ma’muuraati wa ilash-sharri fatulhaqu bil-manhiyyaati means: As for the “permissibles”, the Legislator has made it permissible and allowed it. And it (meaning the mubahaat) could be a leading means to good, thus it will be made to fall under the things commanded (the commandments – whether in an obliging manner or a recommended manner) or to evil thus it will be made tofallunder the things forbidden.
A precise meaning for the translation is: “Those things which are permissible might be:
1. Means leading to good, thus being included in the things commanded.
2. or to evil thus being included in the things forbidden (whether in an obliging manner or in a recommended manner.)
Al Ma’muuraat means: the things commanded
Tulhaq means: made to follow
Saying: “thus being included” meaning it will be made to fall under the commandments. – Someone included them
This is because Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta’aalaa through His Prophet sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam taught us that whatever is a means to good is ordered to do as well, either in an obliging manner or a recommended manner.
It makes it one of the commandments not in itself but because of something else.
Al Mubaah in itself is something which is not commanded but this thing which is permissible might be the only means leading to that which is waajib- like going to a circle of knowledge. How will you go to the circle of knowledge? Walking in itself is mubaah – no one can make it obligatory upon you to walk or say it is prefered or makrooh or muharram.
But if there is a circle of knowledge in your area and the only way you are going to gain that knowledge is if you go there then this walking to gain that knowledge becomes obligatory becuase it is the only way to get to that means of seeking knowledge, So the thing which is mubaah and is a means leading to what is waajib or mustahaab, then it becomes included in the commandments.
….or to evil thus being included in the things forbidden (whether in an obliging manner or in a recommended manner)
So for example: “Sitting down” in itself is mubaah – it is not ordered neither is it forbidden. But if sitting somewhere includes that you participate in somethingwhich is haram, it will become haraam. If you are sitting somewhere and suddenly the people start backbiting someone and you try to advise them but they didn’t listen – they kept on with it – now you remaining sitting there will be impermissible. Because now it has become a means for you to participate in this haram thing they are doing. This is why Allaah said in 4/140 which means: “And it has already been revealed to you in the Book (this Qur’ân) that when you hear the Verses of Allâh being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in a talk other than that; (but if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them. Surely, Allâh will collect the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Hell,”. So sitting in itself was not haram but when it was leading to being among the ones who mock the signs orverses of Allaah, it was included in the things forbidden.
So when that thing which is permissible lead to something thatwas waajib then it became commanded itself and when it was leading to something haraam then it became muharram itself. –
fahaadhaa aslun kabeer: Inna wasaa’ila lahaa ahkaamul-maqaasidi means: “Therefore, this is a great principle that the means have the rulings of what they are means to. (The means have the same ruling of their outcomes.)”
Aslun means: “Principle”
Kabeer means: “great”
wasaa’il means: ” the means”
Lahaa means: “have”
Ahkaamul maqaasid means: “the rulings of the outcomes” maqaasid is the plural of maqsad and maqsad is a goal – something that you aim to that you want to reach to.
wa bihi na`lamu anna:means: “and by it (this great principle) we know/acknowledge that:
– “maa laa yatimmul- waajibu illa bihi; fahuwa waajibun” means: Whichever leads to the obligatory is obligatory (literally it means: whatever the obligatory isn’t accomplished except through is obligatory)
Yatimmu means “complete” but here in this sequence it means: “accomplished”
EXAMPLES: Walking becomes obligatory upon the men in order to go to the masjid to pray salah, travelling becomes obligatory upon the people in order tomake hajj, buying clothes become obligatory on the people in order to cover the awrah. etc… Walking, travelling and buying are permissible but in these casesthey become obligatory
-“wamaa laa yutimmul-masnuunu illa bihi; fahuwa masnuunun” means: and whatever the recommended is not accomplished except through it is recommended (also).
maa means “alladhee”, “something”, Here it means “whatever .”
laa is negating
EXAMPLES: using Siwak and wearing perfume for jumu`ah are mustahaab and buying those things (perfume, siwak) become mustahaab because they are the means to these outcomes.
***BE CAREFUL*** Don’t understand from this principle that we have the right to legislate and make something obligatory which wasn’t made obligatory by the Legislator or something impermissible that wasn’t impermissible – but this principle is just to clarify to you that whatever was commanded was only commanded because itleadsto what is best for you. So it is like explaining to you the introduction of each thing that is waajib or each thing that is haraam etc…. So whatever is waajib might be made that way because it LEADS to that which is waajib …
-“wamaa yatawaqqaful-haraamu `alayhi; fahuwa haraamun” means: and what the haraam depends on, then it is a haraam.
EXAMPLE: a man staying alone with a woman in a room or laying your eyes on a woman who is not permissible for you.. this has been made haraam because it leads to haraam – it is the first step to zina. “looking” is mubaah,but looking at a strange woman is haraam except in the condition/case when it is permissible and that is when looking upon her for marriage. Because this type of looking is for a greater advantage (marriage). And from this you know that the Prophet sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam only made it an exception in the case of marriage. QUESTION: if the Prophet sallallaahu`alayhi wasallam made it an exception to look at a womans face in the case of marriage then what would be the default ruling? it is haraam.
– wa “wasaa’ilul-makruuhi; makruuhatun” means: “and the means to the things which are disliked, are disliked.”